第三十七卷第二期 (期別144) (111年)

第三十七卷第二期 (期別144) (111年)

先進混凝土特刊 

客座主編:洪崇展

標題「先進混凝土特刊」引言
作者洪崇展
 

      優良混凝土工程為台灣基礎建設成功發展的重要角色,近年混凝土科學與研究的蓬勃發展,掀起了混凝土性能與永續發展之革新,因而如今可見超過20,000 psi 抗壓強度、又具有高抗裂與防水能力的「類鋼鐵」超高性能混凝土應用於大小實務工程中,亦有不須添加任何卜特蘭水泥而製成的綠色混凝土,以及混凝土添加回收處理之廢棄漁網或橡塑膠材料,而同時提升性能與循環經濟的永續混凝土材料,除了組成材料與性能之革新,混凝土的積層列印技術也開始應用於實務製程。

      結構工程期刊企盼藉由此次特刊的機會,向各界介紹國內先進混凝土於近期結構工程之研發成果。本特刊收錄了先進混凝土材料之研發與應用,包含高性能早強無機聚合物混凝土與高強度纖維樹脂砂漿之介紹,以及其於結構工程之應用;呼應循環經濟發展之議題,探討再生廢棄材料所製成之短纖維於混凝土性能強化之可能性;混凝土構件的自動化製作技術,研究3D 列印混凝土的製備技術;借鏡澳洲與美國混凝土結構工程規範,探討其與國內規範之異同。期盼透過這些文章之介紹,進一步鼓勵國內各界持續推動混凝土技術的革新與落實,共同為台灣提升下一世代混凝土工程之品質與永續性。

國立成功大學土木工程系 洪崇展 特聘教授 謹誌
結構工程期刊144 期 客座主編
2022 年05 月

標題應用高強度纖維樹脂砂漿發展新式耐震補強工法之研究
作者蕭輔沛、翁樸文、林佳蓁、河本孝紀、林宜靜、大上旭、何家儀
關鍵字高強度纖維樹脂砂漿、框架斜撐、耐震間柱、剪力牆、耐震評估與補強
摘要傳統耐震補強工法因施工期長,常會嚴重影響原建築物正常運作,對於私有建物較難推行耐震補強工作。本研究應用高強度纖維樹脂砂漿材料開發既有鋼筋混凝土結構之新式補強工法,能有效改善傳統補強工法於新舊界面接合處及補強構件剪力區易生破壞之問題。採用高強度纖維樹脂砂漿相較於傳統混凝土材料,於短期內即可達設計強度,施工影響範圍小,可不影響建築物既有功能,對於醫院、辦公廳舍以及私有建築均有高度運用價值。本研究於國家地震工程研究中心臺南實驗室進行五種不同補強工法耐震試驗,包含鋼框架斜撐、剪力牆及耐震間柱等補強工法,進行水平向反覆加載試驗,比較各式補強工法的強度提升效果與受力變形行為。
TitleStudy on Seismic Retrofit of Concrete Frames using High-strength Fiber Resin Mortar
AuthorFu-Pei Hsiao, Pu-Wen Weng, Chia-Chen Lin, Takanori Kawamoto, Yi-Ching Lin, Asahi Oogami, Chia-Yi Ho
KeywordsHigh-strength Fiber Resin Mortar, Earthquake-proof Furniture, Seismic Assessment and Retrofitting
AbstractThe traditional seismic retrofitting methods often affect the regular operation of the building, and it takes a lot of time during the construction period. So it isn’t easy to carry out reinforcement work in private houses. This research aims to develop seismic retrofitting methods, so we use high-strength fiber resin mortar for existing reinforced concrete structures. It can effectively improve the performance of seismic retrofitting methods. By using the high-strength fiber resin mortar, its expected strength can be achieved within two weeks. Therefore, it takes just a small impact during construction, which does not affect the existing functions of the building. It has high application value for hospitals, commercial buildings, and private residences. In this research, the different kinds of seismic retrofitting methods will be tested at the NCREE Laboratory. There are three kinds of seismic retrofitting methods, such as steel frame bracing, shear wall, stub column. The experimental specimens were tested in horizontally cyclic loading to compare the seismic behavior and the difference of seismic retrofitting methods. It uses popular seismic assessment methods for each test and compares them with the experimental results in this research.
標題 高早強無機聚合修復材料於橋梁伸縮縫之可行性研究
作者 瑞子灣、劉光晏、蔡志達
關鍵字 無機聚合材料、高早強、快速修復、伸縮縫
摘要 全球暖化是現今世界的關鍵議題,溫室氣體是造成全球變暖的原因。CO2 被認為是一種溫室氣體,水泥行業在環境中的總排放量貢獻5-7% CO2 排放量。此外,水泥量以每年3%之需求增加被視為僅次於水之外最被廣泛使用的材料。如果工程材料可免除水泥使用量將可達到減碳目的。另一方面,橋梁中的伸縮縫因可吸收因溫度、側向移動與轉動的功能,在橋面的穩定性中具有重要的角色。因此,橋梁從業人員需要一種高強度、快速凝固的材料來更換伸縮縫並迅速重新開放交通。基於前述討論,本研究使用飛灰、爐石粉來開發高早強無機聚合修復材料。高鈣的無機聚合材料係以F 級飛灰和爐石粉(S4000)以不同比例混合作為黏結劑,鹼液NaOH 濃度為10M;SiO2/Na2O 為1.28,和預熱的河砂作為細粒料以增強聚合反應。本研究的主要目的是開發高強度無機聚合物材料(35MPa/5 小時),並考慮預熱細粒料的影響、抗壓強度(加熱1、3、5 小時),以及其與超高性能砂漿、無收縮高強度砂漿的黏結強度及剪切強度。實驗針對不同的飛灰-爐石粉比例、水-NaOH 比例而設計。實驗結果顯示,根據36 個高寬比為1 的試體,當飛灰-爐石粉比例為1:3、水-NaOH 比為10%,抗壓強度在 5 小時內可達52.67 MPa。當飛灰-爐石粉比例為1:2、水-NaOH 比為10%,黏結強度為34.93 MPa。增加爐石粉用量將減少無機聚合材料的初凝、終凝時間,以及的流速。因此,工程實務使用時,仍應同時滿足強度與工作性的需求。
Title Feasibility study on the Early-High-Strength
Repairing Geopolymer Materials at Bridge Expansion Joints
Author Mohammad Rizwan Bhina, Kuang-Yen Liu, Chih-Ta Tsai
Keywords Geopolymer material, early-high-strength, rapid repairing, expansion joint.
Abstract Global warming has become a serious issue worldwide and it was evident that the greenhouse gases are mainly responsible for global warming. CO2 is considered as the major greenhouse gas. Among all the industries, cement industries contributed 5-7 ℅ CO2 emissions to the environment. Demand for concrete is increasing by 3% per year as concrete is the material used worldwide next to the water. If the engineering materials can be exempted from the use of cement, the purpose of carbon reduction can be achieved. Additionally, expansion joints play an important role in the stability of the bridge deck and also in accommodating thermal, lateral, and rotational moments. Hence, bridge industries demanded a high-strength, rapid setting material to replace the joints quickly and reopen the traffic. Considering all these issues, the early-high-strength repairing geopolymer material by using fly-ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) are developed in this study. The high calcium inorganic polymer material was prepared by mixing fly-ash (Class-F) and GGBS (S4000) as a bonding agent with a varied ratio, NaOH alkali solution with 10 molarity (SiO2/Na2O=1.28) as an activator and pre-heated river sand as a fine aggregate to enhance the polymerization reaction. The main objectives of the present investigation were to develop a high strength geopolymer material (GPM) to provide 35MPa in 5 hours and examined the properties with regard to the effect of pre-heated fine aggregate, compressive strength (hot air-cured for 1,3 and 5 hours) and bond strength of GPM with ultra-high-performance material (UHPM) as well as high-strength non-shrinkage material (HS-NSM) from the slant shear test. The experiment was also carried out by varying the fly-ash to GGBS ratio and water to NaOH ratio. A total of 36 GPM specimens with an aspect ratio of 1 were tested. Results revealed that the hot mix procedure of GPM with the fly-ash to GGBS and water to NaOH ratio 1:3 and 10%, respectively produced greater compressive strength (52.67 MPa/5 hours) and fly-ash to GGBS and water to NaOH ratio 1:2 and 10%, respectively indicated excellent bond strength of 34.93 MPa. Results of the present investigation revealed that by increasing the amount of GGBS, the initial and final setting time and the flow rate of GPM have decreased. It was suggested that by applying GPM on the actual construction site, strength and workability should be considered simultaneously.
標題利用回收碳纖維製備之纖維混凝土靜態與動態力學性能研究
作者李有豐、許晉源、張淑美、沈銘原、黃發俊、林李宸、黃培鈞、余家祿
關鍵字回收碳纖維、微波熱裂解、碳纖維混凝土
摘要纖維混凝土係於混凝土中添加纖維,以提升其抗彎強度及韌性,減少混凝土收縮與開裂。本研究採用微波熱裂解法處理廢熱固碳纖維高分子複合材料之回收碳纖維,並將其加入混凝土中製成纖維混凝土。回收碳纖維長度分別為5 ~ 10 mm、15 ~ 20 mm、與30 ~ 50 mm,纖維添加量分別為水泥重量之0.5%、1.0%、1.5%。試驗之混凝土水灰比為0.6,粒料細度模數為6.78。再透過抗壓、抗彎、劈裂和撞擊等試驗探討回收碳纖維混凝土之力學行為。試驗結果顯示,纖維添加量為1.5%時,較其他添加量之回收碳纖維混凝土力學行為表現維最佳。與標準試體比較,纖維添加量為1.5%時且依照纖維長度從短到長,碳纖維混凝土抗壓強度分別能夠提升48.71%、56.15%與48.88%;抗彎強度分別能夠提升55.76%、43.63%與27.31%;劈裂強度分別能夠提升28.96%、45.70%與47.58%。而撞擊試驗結果顯示,回收碳纖維添加量為1.0%,撞擊能量為50 焦耳下,纖維長度30 ~ 50 mm 之回收碳纖維混凝土之撞擊次數比未添加纖維之混凝土提升達3,615%。上述試驗結果顯示,添加回收碳纖維可以有效提升回收碳纖維混凝土之力學特性。
TitleA Study on the Static and Dynamic Mechanical Behaviors of Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Concrete
AuthorYeou-Fong Li, Jin-Yuan Syu, Shu-Mei Chang, Ming-Yuan Shen, Fa-Jun Huang, Li-Chen Lin, Pei-Jun Huang, Jia-Lu Yu
KeywordsRecycled carbon fiber, microwave-assisted pyrolysis, carbon fiber concrete
AbstractFiber reinforced concrete can improve the flexural strength and toughness of concrete, and also can reduce the shrinkage and cracking of concrete. In this study,  microwave-assisted pyrolysis was used to recycle carbon fibers from the waste carbon fiber polymer composites to make recycled carbon fiber- reinforced concrete. The lengths of the recycled carbon fibers were 5-10 mm, 15-20 mm, and 30-50 mm, respectively, and the fiber to cement weight rations were 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%, respectively. The water-cement ratio was 0.6, and the aggregate fineness modulus (F.M.) was 6.78. The mechanical performances of recycled carbon fiber-reinforced concrete (RCFRC) were investigated by using compression, bending, splitting and impact tests. The test results show that when the fiber to cement weight ratio is 1.5%, the mechanical performance of the recycled carbon fiber- reinforced concrete is the best compared to other fiber to cement weight ratios. Compare to the benchmark specimen, for 1.5% fiber to cement ratio and fiber length from short to long, the compressive strengths of the RCFRC increase 48.71%, 56.15% and 48.88% respectively; the flexural strengths of RCFRC increase 55.76%, 43.63% and 27.31%; the splitting strengths of RCFRC increase 28.96%, 45.70% and 47.58% respectively. The impact test results show that with 1.0% fiber to cement ratio and an impact energy of 50 joules, the impact times of RCFRC with a fiber length of 30-50 mm increased by 3,615% compared to benchmark specimen. The above results show RCFRC can effectively improve the mechanical properties of concrete.
標題積層製造技術用於結構組件之可行性:無水泥3D 列印技術為案例
作者黃家芸、林威廷、鄭安、LUKÁŠ FIALA
關鍵字無水泥型膠凝材料、3D 列印技術、噴凝流量、黏滯度
摘要3D 列印營建用結構構件或元件,屬近年來炙手可熱的營建自動化技術發展,3D 列印技術不僅具備快速施工、節省建築材料、品質穩定等優勢,列印噴凝材料的多樣化亦是其發展重點。本研究選用三種工業副產品(燃煤飛灰、超微細飛灰與水淬高爐石粉),在免添加鹼激發藥劑的前提下,混合製成三元型無水泥膠凝材料,利用三種膠結材料之性質與調整的水膠比,藉由黏滯度試驗、凝結時間試驗、針筒模擬噴凝試驗、流度試驗彙整之試驗結果,挑選出最佳的混合比例進行3D 列印機試體製作與抗壓強度驗證。試驗結果發現:選用黏滯度超過6000 cP 以上的膠結材料,混合出具備黏稠性的黏彈性固體漿體,將可用於液體沉積成型3D 列印機之噴凝材料。試驗結果驗證在水膠比0.25 的條件下,膠結材料使用10%爐石粉、40%超微細飛灰與50%飛灰製成之三元型無水泥膠凝材料,可作為3D 列印噴凝材料,列印機的噴凝流量應設定為40%,其噴凝出的試體有最佳的外觀完整性。利用抗壓強度試驗可以驗證3D 列印的試體較傳統灌模之試體,有較高的抗壓強度與灌製品質,結果驗證本研究開發之無水泥型膠凝材料適合做為3D 列印噴凝材料,並符合工業副產品高值化技術之推廣。
TitleFeasibility of additive manufacturing technology for structural components: the case study of 3D printing using cementless binders
AuthorChia-Yun Huang, Wei-Ting Lin, An Cheng, LUKÁŠ FIALA
Keywordscementless blended material; 3D printing technology; printing flow; viscosity
AbstractIn recent years, 3D printing of structural components or elements for construction has been a popular construction automation technology. 3D printing technology has the advantages of fast construction, saving construction materials and stable quality, and the diversity of printing spraying materials is the key to its development. In this study, three industrial by-products (fly ash, ultra-fine fly ash and ground-granulated blast-furnace slag) were mixed to form a ternary cementless blended material without the addition of alkaline activators. The test results were compiled through viscosity tests, setting time tests, syringe injection tests and flowability tests. The results revealed that a viscoelastic solid paste with a viscosity of over 6000 cP could be used as a spraying material for liquid deposition modeling 3D printers. The results confirmed that a ternary cementless blended material made from 10% slag, 40% ultra-fine fly ash and 50% fly ash, at a water to binder ratio of 0.25, could be used as a spraying material for 3D printing and that the spraying flow rate of the printer should be set at 40% to achieve the best aesthetic integrity of the sprayed specimens. The compressive strength tests were conducted to verify that the 3D printed specimens have higher compressive strength and casting quality than the conventional molded specimens. The cementless blended material developed in this study is suitable for use as a 3D printing spraying material and is in line with the promotion of high-value industrial by-product technology.
標題 低矮型鋼筋混凝土剪力牆往復載重行為之高仿真非線性分析
作者 温子漢、洪崇展、Hexin Zhang 、Phu Anh Huy Pham 、袁宇秉
關鍵字 組成律模型、異向性、剪切與開裂行為、網格敏感性、非比例載荷、有限元素分析
摘要 國內外耐震設計規範對特殊鋼筋混凝土(RC)結構設計要求進行高仿真、非線性之地震歷時動力分析。非線性結構模擬的核心技術是材料的組成律模型,特別是混凝土材料。然而,許多現有的混凝土組成律模型無法解決一些關鍵問題,包括開裂引起的異向性、非比例載荷下應力傳遞機制的變化、剪切滑移和開裂後再接觸行為、網格尺寸敏感性以及計算效率和細部精準度兩者之間的平衡。為此,本文介紹一個穩定且經過實驗驗證的組成律模型 (Yuen 等人 2022),用於混凝土結構的高仿真非線性反應分析。該組成律模型的主要特徵包括 (一) 基於總應變的數學模型,其中包含與加載歷史相關的內部參數,(二) 開裂面上的往復法向和切向應力-應變反應,(三) 利用新穎的開裂平面搜索算法求得符合唯一性之固定三維開裂平面坐標,(四)以等效單軸應變-變換方法模擬多軸應變的相互作用,(五)改進的剪切滑移和開裂重新接觸模擬,以及(六) 透過模型參數正規化減輕網格尺寸敏感性。該組成律模型透過使用者副程式在 ABAQUS 中建立,並已於前文(Yuen 等人 2022)證明能成功應用於模擬剪切板實驗(shear panel tests)與受剪切控制之實尺寸RC 柱的反覆載重行為。本文進一步展示該組成律模型應用於模擬小剪跨比且高強度 RC 牆的反覆載重實驗,模擬結果成功吻合RC牆的損傷演變和遲滯迴圈。因此,所提出的混凝土組成律模型具優異性能,可以用於特殊混凝土結構的高仿真非線性分析。
Title High-Fidelity Nonlinear Cyclic Response Simulations of Squat RC Shear Walls
Author Tzu-Han Wen, Chung-Chan Hung, Hexin Zhang, Phu Anh Huy Pham, Terry Y.P. Yuen*
Keywords Constitutive model, anisotropy, shear-slip and re-contact, mesh-sensitivity, non-proportional loading, concrete, finite element
Abstract As stipulated by most of the prevailing structural design standards, nonlinear response analysis with high-fidelity numerical models would be inevitable for
designing unconventional reinforced concrete structures under extreme seismic loading. The core of nonlinear numerical models is the constitutive modelling of materials, particularly for concrete materials. Nevertheless, many of the existing concrete constitutive models could not resolve some critical issues that involve crack-induced anisotropy, change of stress transfer mechanisms under non-proportional loading, shear-slip and re-contact behaviour, mesh-size sensitivity, and balance between computational efficiency and modelling the detailed responses. To this end, this paper presents a robust and experimentally validated constitutive model that was developed recently (Yuen et al., 2022) for high-fidelity nonlinear response analysis of reinforced concrete elements. The key features include (1) the total-strain based formulation with loading-history dependent internal variables, (2) cyclic normal and tangential stress-strain responses prescribed on crack planes, (3) fixed 3D crack plane coordinate that is uniquely determined by a novel crack plane searching algorithm, (4) multi-axial strain interaction modelled by the equivalent uniaxial-strains transformation method, (5) shear-slip and re-contact of the crack planes modelled by the modified shear retention model, and (6) mesh-size sensitivity mitigation through the model parameter regularisation. The proposed model was already implemented into ABAQUS through the user-subroutine and successfully applied to simulate reserved-cyclic loading tests on shear panels and a full-scale shear-controlled column (Yuen et al., 2022). This paper presents a further validation study of the proposed model on a high-strength squat RC wall. The high-fidelity model can again well capture the damage evolutions and complete load-deflection hysteresis response of the tested wall. Hence, with the demonstrated performances, the proposed model could be a competent candidate for the high-fidelity nonlinear analysis of next generations of concrete structures that feature unconventional design.
標題AS3600:2018 THE AUSTRALIAN CONCRETE STANDARD AND IMPLICATIONS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN IN TAIWAN
作者Sturm, A.B.
關鍵字 
摘要Despite being a small country Australia has long maintained independent reinforced concrete design standards with significant differences to the US and European standards which most people outside of Australia would be familiar. This is in part due to the long history of high-level research into reinforced concrete within Australia. Therefore, in this paper I will review the latest edition of the Australian design standards and contrast this with ACI 318-19. From this I will draw implications for reinforced concrete design in Taiwan. Unique aspects of this standard include the approach to time effects, shear as well as fibre reinforced concrete.
TitleAS3600:2018 THE AUSTRALIAN CONCRETE STANDARD AND IMPLICATIONS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN IN TAIWAN
AuthorSturm, A.B.
Keywords 
AbstractDespite being a small country Australia has long maintained independent reinforced concrete design standards with significant differences to the US and European standards which most people outside of Australia would be familiar. This is in part due to the long history of high-level research into reinforced concrete within Australia. Therefore, in this paper I will review the latest edition of the Australian design standards and contrast this with ACI 318-19. From this I will draw implications for reinforced concrete design in Taiwan. Unique aspects of this standard include the approach to time effects, shear as well as fibre reinforced concrete.